26-28 August 2014
Food vs Feed: The Livestock Equation in Food Security
Mr Yudi Guntara Noor
The world population of 7.2 billion is projected to increase and reach 9.6 billion by 2050 (UN 2013), FAO predicted demand for food, fuel, and fiber will thus increase 60% by the year 2050. Demand for beef and milk will increase significantly, and create global concern over the level of feeds required to meet the projected levels of demand.
Indonesia is the 4th largest populated country in the world with almost 240 million population in 2010 and predicted about 320 million population in 2050. High population, economic growth, and increased public demand for high quality protein sources such as beef and milk will result in a significant increase in demand for these food products. Increasing livestock and dairy production to secure food availability to feed the population is a high national priority. Food, feed, and fuel competition use along with climate change and massive land clearance for housing and industries have encouraged Indonesia to improve the competitiveness and efficiency of livestock and dairy production systems. Recent public awareness of ethical and environmental issues in animal production also require greater attention as failing to do so will result in public distrust in these industries. As feed and feeding contribute to more than 70% of the cost of livestock or dairy production, utilizing alternative cheaper feeds which are not competing with foods is a commercial necessity. Fortunately, there are by-products of agro-industries in Indonesia that can be used as alternative feeds for example cassava meal, rice straw, copra meal, and palm oil by-products such as palm kernel cake and palm fronds. The nutritive value of these by-products can be improved by physical or biological treatment. Among others, palm oil by-products are the highest potential feed alternatives since Indonesia is one of the largest palm oil producing countries in the world. Consequently, integrating livestock, dairy, and palm oil plantation systems is seen as preferable way forward to deliver better efficiency, zero waste agricultural systems, and adding more value for the local communities. Also grazing management under palm oil plantations may improve the cost-efficiency of cattle breeding systems.